History Photos: World Wars and Slavery

History Photos: World Wars and Slavery

 

History of Slavery

Slavery is the systematic exploitation of labor. Slavery is a legal or informal institution under which a person (called “a slave”) is compelled to work for another (sometimes called “the master” or “slave owner”).  Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed to varying extents, forms and periods in almost all cultures and countries.  Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation in return for their labor. Today, slavery is formally outlawed in nearly all countries, but the continues to exist in various forms around the world. Prior to the 10th century, words other than “slave” were used for all kinds of unfree laborers. For instance, the old Latin word servuswas used for both serfs and chattel slaves.In Modern English, the word slave originates from “sclave” around 1290.  It’s based on the Byzantine Greek “sklabos” meaning Slavic people“.  The term originally referred to various peoples from Eastern and Central Europe since many Slavic and other people from these areas were captured and sold as slaves by the Vikings and later the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.The enslavement of so many White Christian people is where the word slave  originated. 

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The Slave Market is a painting by 19th century artist Gustave Boulanger.  It depicts a Roman slave auction and appears to be intended to show the horrific aspects of human beings being for sale.  It shows the marketing of seven young people, ranging in age from children to young adults, as slaves.  Both male slaves, as well as two of the female slaves, bear a similarity in appearance, perhaps suggesting that they are members of a family forced into slavery by economic conditions.  All are wearing tags to indicate their availability as slaves.  The auctioneer adds to the sense of horror with his very casual attitude.

13th Century slave market in Yemen

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Slavery traces back to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi around 1760 BC, which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer and is found in every civilization including ancient Egypt, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Ancient Persia, Rome and the Islamic Caliphate.  Slavery is mentioned in the Bible.As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The Romans enslaved Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (Celts), Jews, Arabs and many more not only for labor but for their amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves).  This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts, the most famous led by Spartacus.  Most of these populations were White, the majority Christian.   The early medieval slave trade was mainly to the East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim World were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources.  Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages.During the constant warfare between Muslims and Christians in Medieval Spain and Portugal, Muslim raiding parties took Christian slaves by the thousands, mainly women and children.   The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world.  After one battle 12,000 Christian slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks.  Christians also sold Muslim slaves captured in war.Slavery was prominent in Africa long before the beginnings of the transatlantic slave trade.  The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal was created for the sale of imported African slaves 1444.  In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania.  By the year 1552 black African slaves made up 10 percent of the population of Lisbon.The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards.  They used them on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the native populations had been decimated by smallpox.  The first African slaves arrived in 1501.According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere there were an estimated 8 million or 9 million slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in both Hindu and Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.  The Imperial government formally abolished slavery in China in 1906, and the law became effective in 1910.  Indigenous slaves existed in Korea.  Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves.Historians say the Arab slave trade lasted more than millennium.  Some historians estimate that between 11 and 18 million black African slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 AD to 1900 AD, or more than the 9.4 to 12 million Africans brought to the Americas.  According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbara pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.

On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  Article 4 states:

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

That hasn’t stopped slavery

Although outlawed in nearly all countries, forms of slavery still exist in many parts of the world.  According to Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there were 27 million people (although some put the number as high as 200 million) who worked in virtual slavery in 2007, spread all over the world.  According to FTS, these slaves represent the largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history and the smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.FTS claims that present-day slaves have been sold for $40 in Mali for young adult male workers and as much as $1,000 in Thailand for HIV-free females able to work in brothels.  The lower limit represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave: the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 in the United States would have been about $25,800 in present-day terms (US$1,000 in 1850). That difference, even allowing for differences in purchasing power, is significant.  As a result of the lower price, the economic advantages of present-day slavery are clear.Today (2008) Enslavement is also taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.  The Middle East Quarterly reports that slavery is still endemic in Sudan.  The Chinese government freed 570 people from brick manufacturers in June and July 2007.  Among those rescued were 69 children.  In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing an enslaved worker.In Mauritania (northwest Africa) alone, it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor.  Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. It should be interesting to note that it’s the lighter skinned Muslim majority  (“white Moors” or bidhan) that’s enslaving the darker skinned descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery who now live in Mauritania as “black Moors” or haratin in Mauritania.

In Niger slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.  Pygmies, the people of Central Africa’s rain forest, live in servitude to the Bantus.  Some tribal sheiks in Iraq still keep blacks, called Abd, which means servant or slave in Arabic, as slaves.  Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining. According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in the Ivory Coast in 2002.   In the Sudan more than 200,000 people, mostly Dinka, have been enslaved in recent years.

In Myanmar an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labor.

Sexual Slavery

In Africa with institutional slavery “abolished” in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in most countries, other forms of slavery have become more widespread.  Reports of women sex slaves in Sudan, Liberia, Sierra Leone, northern Uganda, Congo, Niger and Mauritania are common.  In Ghana, Togo and Benin a form of religious prostitution known as trokosi (ritual servitude) forcibly keeps thousands of girls and women in traditional shrines as “wives of the gods”, where priests perform the sexual function in place of the gods.

In India as many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under the age of 14, have been sold into sexual slavery.  Nepalese women and girls are favored in India because of their fair skin and they look young.

In Pakistan girls as young as nine years old have been sold by their families to brothels as sex slaves in big cities, often due to poverty or debt, but occasionally to pay for gambling, drinking or drug debt.  Girls from Afghanistan have been tricked into coming to Pakistan and then used as sex slaves.

Asia is rampant with crimes against women in the sex slave business.  Tens of thousands of women and girls, some very young, are forced into the sex business in countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, China, and others.  Thailand is a big offender in this disgusting business.  Japan recently apologized for forcing women to be used as sex slaves during World War II.

Israel has smuggled between 3,000 and 5,000 women over  the past four years in a burgeoning, illegal sex industry, according to a parliamentary committee report issued in 2005.  The women are smuggled across the Egyptian border into Israel and, according to Zehava Galon who heads the Committee Against Trade in Women, these women are “raped, beaten, and then sold in public auctions.”  Most of the women are from the former Soviet Union, she said.  In other words, White.

The United States has rescued Asian and Mexican women from being held captive as used as sex slaves.

These are just some of the known cases of modern day slavery

Human trafficking

Trafficking in human beings (also called human trafficking) is sometimes referred to as a form of slavery. The opponents of the practice point out that victims are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into a “debt slavery” situation by the use against them of coercion, deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims.

While the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, who are forced into prostitution (in which case the practice is called sex trafficking), victims also include men, women and children who are forced into manual labor.

Due to the illegal nature of human trafficking, its exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2005, estimates that 600,000-800,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year (10,000 to 20,000 into the United States). This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally.  This number is probably very low.   

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IRISH SLAVE TRADE – THE FORGOTTEN HISTORY OF BRITAIN’S WHITE SLAVES IN AMERICA Source: pinterest

Painting of a 19th Century Arab slave market. Notice the ethnicity of each person. This ancient Arab slave trade scene was typical of the period, and has continued today. E.g. an Ethiopian artist/friend, as a young victim, was hoodwinked and sold in Aden where he later impregnated his master’s daughter and had to escape and flee back home. Source: http://yamaye1.blogspot.com

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Sale of a Slave Girl in Rome, 1884 SOURCE: medium

SOURCE: https://medium.com/@Limerick1914/the-imagery-of-the-irish-slaves-myth-dissected-143e70aa6e74#.r4v93adjh

 

 

As you can see, slavery has its victims in all races, male and female, young and old 

Slave Trade:
the African Connection, ca 1788
The labor-intensive agriculture of the New World demanded a large workforce. Crops such as sugar cane, tobacco and cotton required an unlimited and inexpensive supply of strong backs to assure timely production for the European market. Slaves from Africa offered the solution. The slave trade between Western Africa and the America’s reached its peak in the mid-18th century when it is estimated that over 80,000 Africans annually crossed the Atlantic to spend the rest of their lives in chains. Of those who survived the voyage, the final destination of approximately 40% was the Caribbean Islands. Thirty-eight percent ended up in Brazil, 17% in Spanish America and 6% in the United States.It was a lucrative business. A slave purchased on the African coast for the equivalent of 14 English pounds in bartered goods in 1760 could sell for 45 pounds in the American market.A slave’s journey to a life of servitude often began in the interior of Africa with his or her capture as a prize of war, as tribute given by a weak tribal state to a more powerful one, or by outright kidnapping by local traders. European slave traders rarely ventured beyond Africa’s coastal regions. The African interior was riddled with disease, the natives were often hostile and the land uncharted. The Europeans preferred to stay in the coastal region and have the natives bring the slaves to them.

Most of the Negroes shipped off from the coast of Africa are kidnapped.”

Only negroes were the victims of slavery and only Whites owned slaves

The truth is that by around 1626

White slaves outnumbered blacks in the Chesapeake by more than

Twenty to one

And even by 1700 the ration was still three to one

6000 White slaves

2000 black slaves

The gap was closing fast, but Whites were still enslaved in greater numbers then blacks.

The Forgotten Slaves: Whites in Servitude in Early America and Industrial Britain

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White slave trade SOURCE: The Douglas Archives

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SOURCE: Daily Mail

White children enslaved in a mine in 19th century England. The two on the left are virtually naked. Children of both sexes worked in this manner.         

Source: www.saveyourheritage.com

 

Slavery
System in which individuals were bought, sold, and owned like property.

Slavery Didn’t Just Occur in U.S. History

Slave Trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the
Atlantic Ocean from the 16th throu...

African Participation in the Slave Trade
Africans played a direct role in the slave
trade. The rise of the large commercia...

Sold for the Price of Copper and Cowrie shells
Copper was the "red gold" of Africa. Copper was
usually worn by women to di...

The Slave Trade
The slave trade involved
European nations (Dutch,
British, Spanish, and French)
bringing black slaves from...

Triangular Trade
First leg of the triangle was from a European port to Africa, in which ships
carried supplies for sale or...

Instruments of the Trade
Branding Iron, ca. 1790
Eventually the captives were sold to slave brokers and branded with hot i...

Instruments of the Trade
Three-Person Ship Shackle
The outside shackles held two adults or adolescents seated in one direc...

Slave Ships
Below Decks Around a Slave Ship
Slaves were delivered aboard ship chained together; they mostly remained so du...

Slave Ships
Slaves were loaded aboard slave ships (floating prisons)
where men, women, and children were packed into every...

The Middle Passage
“Underwater sculpture in
Grenada, memorializing
Africans who jumped or
were forced overboard
during the...

Slave Ship Rebellions
Thousands of enslaved Africans tried to overthrow their captors on slave ships
taking them to the Am...

Southern law did not recognize
slave marriages. Husbands, wives,
and children were often sold
separately.
Domestic Slave T...

Source: slideshare.net

***

 

Image result for MANILLA: MONEY OF THE SLAVE TRADE pic

SOURCE: http://usslave.blogspot.com

Image result for MANILLA: MONEY OF THE SLAVE TRADE pic

SOURCE: http://usslave.blogspot.com

 

Related image

SOURCE: dailymail.co.u

 

*****

 

Professor Chee 
Lecture on WWII 
1. War starts in Asia in 1931 
2. Race plays a major part in this war with 
devastating c...

World War II Timeline 
1931 – Japanese invade Manchuria (“Asia for the Asians”) 
1935 – Italians invade Ethiopia 
1937 – J...

3 
World War II Death Toll of 60-70 Million 
20 
15 
4 
2 
0.4 
6 
0.3 
6 USSR 
China 
Germany 
Japan 
Poles 
Britain 
US ...

4 
1931 – Japanese invade Manchuria 
“Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity 
Sphere” or 
“Asia for the Asians” 
Japanese territo...

The Mukden Incident (1931) 
o Japanese troops in Manchuria, 
China, secretly blow up small 
parts of the Japanese-built 
S...

1935 – Italians invade Ethiopia 
Italian soldiers on their way to Eritrea, 1935 
o Benito Mussolini 
invades Ethiopia 
o 2...

1936 Ethiopia Pleads with the League of Nations 
to save her from Italian Aggression 
o The League took no 
action until a...

9 
1937 – Japanese invade China, 
Rape of Nanjing 
“Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity 
Sphere” or 
“Asia for the Asians”

10 
Policy of Appeasement: 
Lesson from World War I Misapplied to World War II? 
Munich Conference 1938 
o Italy, France, ...

 

.Hitler signs secret Russian-German 
Treaty of Non-Aggression, 1939 
11 
(Molotov-Ribbentrop 
Pact, August 1939)

Recall WWI Alliances 
o Allied Powers (Formerly 
Triple Entente) - Britain, 
France & Russia (& Serbia) 
& Japan 
O Centra...

US Limited Involvement in WWII before Pearl Harbor 
o US initiates “cash and carry” policy to 
supply Allies with arms 
o ...

Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor, Military 
base in Hawaii (December 7, 1941) 
23 
o FDR: “A date which will live in 
infamy” 
o...

December 8, 1941 
US Joins Allies (Great Britain & USSR) 
o December 11 - Hitler, Mussolini 
(Germany & Italy) declare war...

Japanese Advance in Asia, 1941-42 
After Pearl Harbor, Sumatra & oil, 
Manchuria, Philippines, New Guinea, & 
strategic is...

Women & the War Effort: 
Industrial Chic during WWII 
McCall magazine 
Before the war, promoted the 
glamour of household ...

U.S. stop the Japanese in the Pacific, 1943-45 
Numbers of Americans killed 
o Iwo Jima, 6K 
o Okinawa, 7.6K 
Japanese had...

U.S. Reconquer the Philippines from the Japanese, 1944 
U.S. had occupied Japan previously from 1899-1916 
The Battle of P...

Europe At War, 1944–1945 
Stalingrad – very bitter defeat for 
Germans 
Until 6, 1944, most fighting in 
Europe were betwe...

Germany Surrenders 
After Hitler 
commits suicide 
on 30 April 1945 
Germany 
surrenders 8 May

U.S. Drops an Atomic bomb on Hiroshima, 
40 
Japan, August 6, 1945 
Note: Germany had 
already surrendered. 
Hiroshima – h...

Survivors

August 9, U.S. drops another 
atomic bomb, Nagasaki 
August 8, the Soviet Union 
declares war on Japan 
Nagasaki – 80K peo...

47 
Death Toll of 60-70 Million During World 
War II 
20 
15 
4 
2 
0.4 
6 
0.3 
6 USSR 
China 
Germany 
Japan 
Poles 
Bri...

Japan as Enemy #1 
Prime Minister Hideki Tojo as 
a vampire bat 
U.S. propaganda portrayed 
Japanese as subhuman apes, 
in...

Enemy 2: Nazi Germany as 
Human Sinister Predators, 1942 
Unlike the Japanese, Germans 
portrayed as sinister, but 
human....

American Racial Stereotypes 
During WWII: 
Chinese as Good Asians, 
Japanese as Evil Asians, 
How to Tell a Chinese from a...

57 
The Holocaust 
o Jews deported from ghettos 
all over Europe in cattle 
cars, spring 1942 
o Destination: six speciall...

War is not heroic: censored photos of 
American soldiers later released 
An American Soldier of the Antitank Co., 34th Reg...

A great positive outcome of WWII? 
United Nations Charter, Collective Security 
& The Marshall Plan 
o George C. Marshall ...

Source: .slideshare.net

 

***

2.) The Atlantic Slave Trade: This photo was taken aboard a British vessel, the HMS Daphne (11/01/1868). These child slaves had just been rescued from the trade. The Atlantic Slave Trade: This photo was taken aboard a British vessel, the HMS Daphne (11/01/1868). These child slaves had just been rescued from the trade. (viralnova.com)
Kursk was the last German major offensive operation on the Eastern Front. Their offensive capability was broken, and they never regained it. (Quora)
Japanese soldiers occupying Nanjing gather round to witness the spectacle of Chinese people being buried alive. (Quora)

 

   Children sit helplessly by the roadside as their family flees an attack of Japanese forces. (Quora)

   Battered, starving and ill; newly liberated inmates at Ebensee concentration camp are photographed in their barracks following the camp’s liberation by the U.S. Army Reserve 80th Infantry Division. The Ebensee concentration camp was established by the Schutzstaffel to build tunnels for armaments storage near the town of Ebensee, Austria in 1943. It was part of the larger Mauthausen concentration camp network. Near Ebensee, Traunviertel, Upper Austria, Austria. May 1945.

 

File:"These are slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp near Jena, many had died from malnutrition when U.S. troo - NARA - 535560.jpg“These are slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp near Jena; many had died from malnutrition when U.S. troops of the 80th Division entered the camp.”, 04/16/1945 (wikimedia)   

 

File:Inmate children at the Rab concenctration camp.jpg Children inmates at the Rab Concentration Camp 1943  (Source: Martyr’s path to freedom  (Mučeniška pot k svobodi), Ljubljana, 1946

 

Children   Holocaust on Armenian Children Starving
Armenian Children Starving.

 

Catholic

Roman Catholic Church has been directly involved in genocide against Serbs in Croatia. PIcture: Catholic nuns with imprisoned Serbian children (Museum of Genocide in Yugoslavia)

усташки-геноцид

Serbian children in Croatian concentration camp, Diana Budisavljević files

deca-jasenovac

Serbian children in Croatian concentration camp, Diana Budisavljević files

The Croato- German concentration camp in Sisak was founded on 3. August 1942. after the Croatian  operations in Kozara and Samarica once were completed. This notorious conc camp consisted of special part officially called ” Shelter for the refugee children .”  Children camp in Sisak , the largest of that type within NDH (Independent State of Croatia) , was under the auspices of the ” Ustasha movement female lineage” and ” Ustasha Security Service” , under direct control of ustasha  Dr. Antun Najzer .  During August and September 1942,   Croats deprived 3971 children from parents who were selected for forced labor in Germany.
  “Brown. Fugitive Slave,” is an article published in his newsletter Africultures is an evocation of runaways through the eyes of Fabrice Monteiro. An article that is timely to commemorate the 163 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Guadeloupe, 27 May 2011 .

       A 1937 photograph of Wes Brady, a former slave. Born around 1850, Brady had been owned by a Marshall, Texas, farmer before emancipation. As a young boy he worked the fields, picking cotton. He recalled “The rows was a mile long and no matter how much grass was in them, if you leaves one sprig on your row they beats you nearly to death.”    (quora) 

 

 

           Belgian Congo was one of the most bloody and cruel colonial regimes in Africa. The original inspiration for Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, it was claimed for King Leopold II in 1885 by the explorer Henry Morton Stanley.  (usslave.blogspot.com)

 

       A very gay Stanley Morgan poses his enslaved African boy trophy.  Stanley was employed by King Leopold to dispossess the Congolese of their land.  He copied the techniques of the United States and Britain to seize the homeland of the Native Americans.  (usslave.blogspot.com)  

 

                          Omani history slavery

This French engraving dated to the 1840s shows Arab merchants selling boys in the Muscat slave market.  (histtclo.com)

 19th-century European engraving of Arab slave-trading caravan transporting African slaves across the Sahara  (en.wikipedia.org)

 

Soviet POW’s starving in a Nazi camp. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war, about half of all World War II casualties (en.wikipedia.org)

1943 Bengal Famine SOURCE: /d152j5tfobgaot.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Churchills-man-made-famine.jpg

 

Dutch child during Hunger Winter (Dutch Famine) in 1944 SOURCE: pinterest

The Bengal famine struck the Bengal Province of British India during World War II. It’s an established fact that starvation was a common problem by the end of WW2, with the Bengal famine of 1943 and Dutch famine of 1944 as some of the more extreme examples.  (stormfront.org)

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