(MedlinePlus) WHAT IS MAGNESIUM IN DIET?
Magnesium is an essential mineral for human nutrition.
Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system, keeps the heart beat steady, and helps bones remain strong. It also helps regulate blood glucose levels and aid in the production of energy and protein. There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. However, taking magnesium supplements is not currently recommended. Diets high in protein, calcium, or vitamin D will increase the need for magnesium.
(Office of Dietary Supplements – NIH) Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation . Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. It contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and the antioxidant glutathione. Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm .
An adult body contains approximately 25 g magnesium, with 50% to 60% present in the bones and most of the rest in soft tissues. Less than 1% of total magnesium is in blood serum, and these levels are kept under tight control. Normal serum magnesium concentrations range between 0.75 and 0.95 millimoles (mmol)/L. Hypomagnesemia is defined as a serum magnesium level less than 0.75 mmol/L. Magnesium homeostasis is largely controlled by the kidney, which typically excretes about 120 mg magnesium into the urine each day. Urinary excretion is reduced when magnesium status is low.
Assessing magnesium status is difficult because most magnesium is inside cells or in bone . The most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status is measurement of serum magnesium concentration, even though serum levels have little correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues. Other methods for assessing magnesium status include measuring magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes, saliva, and urine; measuring ionized magnesium concentrations in blood, plasma, or serum; and conducting a magnesium-loading (or “tolerance”) test. No single method is considered satisfactory. Some experts but not others consider the tolerance test (in which urinary magnesium is measured after parenteral infusion of a dose of magnesium) to be the best method to assess magnesium status in adults. To comprehensively evaluate magnesium status, both laboratory tests and a clinical assessment might be required.
(Wikipedia) MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY
Magnesium deficiency is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the body. It can result in numerous symptoms. Symptoms include tremor, poor coordination, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, personality changes, and nystagmus. Complications may include seizures or cardiac arrest such as from torsade de pointes. Those with low magnesium often have low potassium.
Causes include low dietary intake, alcoholism, diarrhea, increased urinary loss, poor absorption from the intestines, and diabetes mellitus. A number of medications may also cause low magnesium, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and furosemide.The diagnosis is typically based on finding low blood magnesium levels (hypomagnesemia). Normal magnesium levels are between 0.6-1.1 mmol/L (1.46–2.68 mg/dL) with levels less than 0.6 mmol/L (1.46 mg/dL) defining hypomagnesemia.Specific electrocardiogram(ECG) changes may be seen.
Treatment is with magnesium either by mouth or intravenously. For those with severe symptoms, intravenous magnesium sulfate may be used. Associated low potassium or low calcium should also be treated. The condition is relatively common among people in hospital.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
(NaturalNewsBlogs) 80-90% of us are deficient in magnesium, and millions have this health problem even without knowing it, as the magnesium deficiency is easy to be misdiagnosed as it doesn’t show up in the blood tests because only 1% of the whole amount of magnesium in your body is stored in the blood. While magnesium is even more important than other minerals such as potassium, sodium and calcium, lack of magnesium may lead to several health disorders and affect the overall health.
Deficiency of magnesium can occur in people who abuse alcohol or in those who absorb less magnesium including:
- People with gastrointestinal disease or surgery causing malabsorption
- Older adults
- People with type 2 diabetes
Symptoms due to a lack of magnesium have three categories.
- Loss of appetite
Moderate deficiency symptoms:
- Muscle contractions and cramps
- Personality changes
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Low blood calcium level (hypocalcemia)
- Low blood potassium level (hypokalemia)
- High blood pressure
- Anxiety and Depression
- Blood clots
- Bowel issues
- Calcium deficit
- Potassium deficit
- Muscle cramps
- Headache, Migraines
- Difficulty swallowing
- Physical and Mental Fatigue
- Kidney issues
- Liver issues
- Bad Brain Function
- Feeling Low
- Respiratory problems
- Tooth decay
- Tension in neck, shoulders and upper back
(Wikipedia) Further more,deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.Magnesium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and its deficiency may worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often precedes diabetes, or may be a consequence of insulin resistance.
Magnesium deficiency may result from gastrointestinal or kidney causes. Gastrointestinal causes include inadequate dietary intake of magnesium, reduced gastrointestinal absorption or increased gastrointestinal loss due to rapid gastrointestinal transit. Kidney causes involve increased excretion of magnesium. Poor dietary intake of magnesium has become an increasingly important factor, as many people consume a diet that is low in magnesium content with refined foods, such as white bread or polished rice, remove the parts of plant foods that are rich in magnesium.
Magnesium deficiency is not uncommon in hospitalized patients. Elevated levels of magnesium (hypermagnesemia) are nearly always caused by a medical treatment. Up to 12% of all people admitted to hospital, and as high as 60–65% of people in an intensive care unit, have hypomagnesemia.
About 57% of the US population does not meet the US RDA for dietary intake of magnesium.The kidneys are very efficient at maintaining body levels; however, if the diet is deficient, or certain medications such as proton-pump inhibitors are used, or in chronic alcoholism, levels may drop.
(MedlinePlus)These are the recommended daily requirements of magnesium:
- Birth to 6 months: 30 mg/day*
- 6 months to 1 year: 75 mg/day*
*AI or Adequate Intake
- 1 to 3 years old: 80 milligrams
- 4 to 8 years old: 130 milligrams
- 9 to 13 years old: 240 milligrams
- 14 to 18 years old (boys): 410 milligrams
- 14 to 18 years old (girls): 360 milligrams
- Adult males: 400 to 420 miligrams
- Adult females: 310 to 320 milligrams
- Pregnancy: 350 to 400 milligrams
- Breastfeeding women: 310 to 360 milligrams
- Adult males: 400 to 420 milligrams
Diet – magnesium
HOW TO GET ENOUGH MAGNESIUM FROM YOUR DIET
You can boost the magnesium levels via food by including high-magnesium-containing foods into your diet, here are a few recommended foods: Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, soybeans, black beans, cashews, spinach, squash, sesame seeds, almonds and okra.
Magnesium is widely distributed in plant and animal foods and in beverages. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are good sources. In general, foods containing dietary fiber provide magnesium. Magnesium is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods. Some types of food processing, such as refining grains in ways that remove the nutrient-rich germ and bran, lower magnesium content substantially . Selected food sources of magnesium are listed in Table 2.
Tap, mineral, and bottled waters can also be sources of magnesium, but the amount of magnesium in water varies by source and brand (ranging from 1 mg/L to more than 120 mg/L) .
Approximately 30% to 40% of the dietary magnesium consumed is typically absorbed by the body .
|Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce||80||20|
|Spinach, boiled, ½ cup||78||20|
|Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce||74||19|
|Peanuts, oil roasted, ¼ cup||63||16|
|Cereal, shredded wheat, 2 large biscuits||61||15|
|Soymilk, plain or vanilla, 1 cup||61||15|
|Black beans, cooked, ½ cup||60||15|
|Edamame, shelled, cooked, ½ cup||50||13|
|Peanut butter, smooth, 2 tablespoons||49||12|
|Bread, whole wheat, 2 slices||46||12|
|Avocado, cubed, 1 cup||44||11|
|Potato, baked with skin, 3.5 ounces||43||11|
|Rice, brown, cooked, ½ cup||42||11|
|Yogurt, plain, low fat, 8 ounces||42||11|
|Breakfast cereals, fortified with 10% of the DV for magnesium||40||10|
|Oatmeal, instant, 1 packet||36||9|
|Kidney beans, canned, ½ cup||35||9|
|Banana, 1 medium||32||8|
|Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, 3 ounces||26||7|
|Milk, 1 cup||24–27||6–7|
|Halibut, cooked, 3 ounces||24||6|
|Raisins, ½ cup||23||6|
|Chicken breast, roasted, 3 ounces||22||6|
|Beef, ground, 90% lean, pan broiled, 3 ounces||20||5|
|Broccoli, chopped and cooked, ½ cup||12||3|
|Rice, white, cooked, ½ cup||10||3|
|Apple, 1 medium||9||2|
|Carrot, raw, 1 medium||7||2|
*DV = Daily Value. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. The DV for magnesium used for the values in Table 2 is 400 mg for adults and children age 4 years and older. This DV, however, is changing to 420 mg as the updated Nutrition and Supplement Facts labels are implemented . The updated labels must appear on food products and dietary supplements beginning in January 2020, but they can be used now. FDA does not require food labels to list magnesium content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient. Foods providing 20% or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient, but foods providing lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides comprehensive list of foods containing magnesium arranged by nutrient content and by food name.
Magnesium supplements are available in a variety of forms, including magnesium oxide, citrate, and chloride . The Supplement Facts panel on a dietary supplement label declares the amount of elemental magnesium in the product, not the weight of the entire magnesium-containing compound.
Absorption of magnesium from different kinds of magnesium supplements varies. Forms of magnesium that dissolve well in liquid are more completely absorbed in the gut than less soluble forms . Small studies have found that magnesium in the aspartate, citrate, lactate, and chloride forms is absorbed more completely and is more bioavailable than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate . One study found that very high doses of zinc from supplements (142 mg/day) can interfere with magnesium absorption and disrupt the magnesium balance in the body .
Magnesium is a primary ingredient in some laxatives. Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia®, for example, provides 500 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium hydroxide) per tablespoon; the directions advise taking up to 4 tablespoons/day for adolescents and adults. (Although such a dose of magnesium is well above the safe upper level, some of the magnesium is not absorbed because of the medication’s laxative effect.) Magnesium is also included in some remedies for heartburn and upset stomach due to acid indigestion . Extra-strength Rolaids®, for example, provides 55 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium hydroxide) per tablet, although Tums® is magnesium free.
MAGNESIUM INTAKES AND STATUS
Dietary surveys of people in the United States consistently show that intakes of magnesium are lower than recommended amounts. An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 2005–2006 found that a majority of Americans of all ages ingest less magnesium from food than their respective EARs; adult men aged 71 years and older and adolescent females are most likely to have low intakes. In a study using data from NHANES 2003–2006 to assess mineral intakes among adults, average intakes of magnesium from food alone were higher among users of dietary supplements (350 mg for men and 267 mg for women, equal to or slightly exceeding their respective EARs) than among nonusers (268 mg for men and 234 for women) . When supplements were included, average total intakes of magnesium were 449 mg for men and 387 mg for women, well above EAR levels.
No current data on magnesium status in the United States are available. Determining dietary intake of magnesium is the usual proxy for assessing magnesium status. NHANES has not determined serum magnesium levels in its participants since 1974, and magnesium is not evaluated in routine electrolyte testing in hospitals and clinics.
(NaturalNewsBlogs) The foods that are high in magnesium to fix your issue, while it’s still not enough to remedy the magnesium deficiency. There are more natural cures and remedies you should also know:
There are certain foods that promote the magnesium absorption in your body, including beverages and fermented foods. So eat these foods too, with the foods that are high in magnesium we listed.
Limit the intake of processed and refined foods as such foods have had their magnesium content removed.
Step-By-Step Directions to Make Your Own Magnesium Oil
Image credit: DIY & Crafts
Recipe #1: You have to prepare:
•½ cup Magnesium Chloride Flakes
•½ cup distilled water
•A glass bowl
•A glass spray bottle
Boil the distilled water, then put the Magnesium Chloride Flakes in the glass bowl and pour the boiling water over it.
Stir well until completely dissolved. Let it cool completely and then store in the spray bottle. It can be last for longer than six months at room temperature.
What if you don’t use distilled water? The mixture will still work, but the shelf life will be a lot shorter. Distilled water lets you use it longer!
(DIY & Crafts) Recipe #2: Epsom Alternative
If you don’t feel like purchasing magnesium chloride flakes, you can pick up Epsom salts instead. Epsom salts are a lot cheaper, which is one reason you might try this alternative. Epsom salts do not have as long-lasting or potent an effect as chloride flakes, but depending on your budget, they may still be the better idea. Plus, maybe you just want a way to take an Epsom salt “bath” without the “bath” part!
Image credit: SaltWorks
Making this mixture is very easy. Mix equal parts water and Epsom salt in a pot on the stovetop. Heat up the pot so that the Epsom salts can dissolve into the water. After waiting for the mixture to cool, transfer it into a spray bottle. You can use it the exact same way you use the original basic recipe above with the magnesium chloride flakes.
Recipe #3: Coconut Oil Body Butter with Magnesium Oil
- ¼ cup organic extra virgin coconut oil
- ½ cup unrefined cocoa, mango, and/or shea butter
- ¼ cup magnesium oil (you can use the oil you created using recipes #1 or #2 above if you wish)
- Essential oil of your preference (optional)
To make this recipe, you will begin by melting the coconut oil and whichever butter you chose over low heat. Pour them into a medium sized bowl after they melt and let them cool for half an hour.
When they begin to turn opaque, you are ready to grab a blender and start whipping them. While you are doing this, begin adding the magnesium oil. Do it gradually, and keep whipping everything as you go. Add any essential oils you choose at this juncture. Once you are done, you can put the mixture in your fridge.
Wait around 20 minutes, then pull it out. If it has reached the point where it is semi-solid, you can blend it again. At this point it should take on a perfect fluffy texture. You can then put it in a glass jar and store it in your fridge. Why does it need to be refrigerated? If you store it out on the counter or in your cabinet, it may melt and start losing the whipped texture. This stuff should hold for a few months before you need to whip up a new batch. Kudos to Kayla for inventing such a great recipe. If you’re trying to alleviate stress, you may as well really pamper yourself, and this is the way to do it! Recipe idea from Radiantlifecatalog Coconut Oil Body Butter with Magnesium
Image credit: diyncrafts.com
You can apply magnesium oil on your skin to treat magnesium deficiency as it can be absorbed through the skin easily. For making magnesium oil, pour boiling water over the Magnesium Chloride Flakes, stir well until it dissolved completely.
A Epsom salt bath helps! You will absorb magnesium from Epsom salt in the water, thus relieving the symptoms of magnesium deficiency.
How to Use Magnesium Oil
Simply spraying on your arms, legs, and stomach before a shower. If you feel it’s too annoying, then dilute with more water when using on your skin. Leave it for about half an hour and then enjoy your shower.
Besides maintaining your good looking skin, magnesium oil is also capable of relieving stress, promoting good sleep and soothing pain.
-For relieving arthritis pain: Rub a few drops of magnesium oil around the painful spots and massage gently.
-For improving sleep quality, reducing stress: Rub magnesium oil on your feet before sleep time.
-For boosting energy: Apply the oil on your body in the morning.
-For refreshing your mouth: Make a mouth washer by diluting 1/4 tsp of magnesium into 1 oz. of water. Gargle for a minute to keep your mouth refreshing. Do not swallow.
(DIY & Crafts) You can spray on magnesium oil or rub it on; how you apply it is up to you. You should know though before you try it that you can expect a “tingling” sensation. The word “tingling” here is a bit of a euphemism. It’s really more of an outright stinging. For that reason you should check on a small patch of skin before you apply the stuff liberally to make sure that you’re up for it.
If this sounds unpleasant, try not to worry about it. Over time, as your body becomes used to the magnesium and your stores finally start building up again, the stinging sensation should lessen. The other good news is that the “tingling” doesn’t really stick around. It may hurt for a few minutes after you apply it, but once it soaks into your skin, the sensation should go away fairly quickly.
Here are some other tips for applying your homemade magnesium oil:
- Steer clear of sensitive areas unless you specifically need to spray on those areas. Areas with fatty tissues like the belly, hips, and thighs are going to be prone to extra stinging. Also steer clear of the neck if you can, as well as creases in your skin.
- If you have just shaved an area, try to wait around 12 hours before you apply magnesium oil there. That skin is already irritated, and will react unhappily to the addition of a new irritant.
- If you dry-brush your skin to increase your circulation, again, wait around 12 hours before you use magnesium oil. Your skin is extra-sensitive after dry-brushing.
- Give your body at least half an hour to absorb magnesium oil before you hop in the bath or the shower.
- If you notice a white film or powder on your skin after applying the oil, don’t freak out. This is perfectly normal, and it should be easy to wipe it off.
- Note that you can pour this stuff straight into your bath, just like when adding Epsom salts. This works great for a soothing soak after a hard day’s work.
- If you have naturally wavy hair, you can spray a little into your tresses to get beachy waves.
- And don’t forget, you can use magnesium oil as a natural deodorant. Image credit: pinterest.com
Now you know all about the wonders of magnesium oil and why it is all the rage right now! This really is one of the most cost-effective and useful home remedies you are ever going to find. It’s great to relax, de-stress, soothe aching muscles and irritated skin, sleep better, and so much more. Enjoy the easy recipes above, and be sure to share your own DIY magnesium oil recipes, tips and tricks with us in the comments below!
INTERACTIONS WITH MEDICATIONS
Several types of medications have the potential to interact with magnesium supplements or affect magnesium status. A few examples are provided below. People taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their magnesium intakes with their healthcare providers.
Magnesium-rich supplements or medications can decrease the absorption of oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate (Fosamax®), used to treat osteoporosis. Use of magnesium-rich supplements or medications and oral bisphosphonates should be separated by at least 2 hours.
Magnesium can form insoluble complexes with tetracyclines, such as demeclocycline (Declomycin®) and doxycycline (Vibramycin®), as well as quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro®) and levofloxacin (Levaquin®). These antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before or 4–6 hours after a magnesium-containing supplement.
Chronic treatment with loop diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix®) and bumetanide (Bumex®), and thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide (Aquazide H®) and ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®), can increase the loss of magnesium in urine and lead to magnesium depletion. In contrast, potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride (Midamor®) and spironolactone (Aldactone®), reduce magnesium excretion.
Proton pump inhibitors
Prescription proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs, such as esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium®) and lansoprazole (Prevacid®), when taken for prolonged periods (typically more than a year) can cause hypomagnesemia. In cases that FDA reviewed, magnesium supplements often raised the low serum magnesium levels caused by PPIs. However, in 25% of the cases, supplements did not raise magnesium levels and the patients had to discontinue the PPI. FDA advises healthcare professionals to consider measuring patients’ serum magnesium levels prior to initiating long-term PPI treatment and to check magnesium levels in these patients periodically
MAGNESIUM AND HEALTHFUL DIETS
The federal government’s 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that “Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. … Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.”
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that:
- Includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, and oils.
- Whole grains and dark-green, leafy vegetables are good sources of magnesium. Low-fat milk and yogurt contain magnesium as well. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with magnesium.
- Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products.
- Dried beans and legumes (such as soybeans, baked beans, lentils, and peanuts) and nuts (such as almonds and cashews) provide magnesium.
- Limits saturated and trans fats, added sugars, and sodium.
- Stays within your daily calorie needs.